Sound Chart

 

The Many Ways a Letter Can Be Pronounced in American English, Alone and in Groupings

 

LETTER 
A

a ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... exact
a ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... father
a ...'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... fall
a ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... about
a ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... base, able
a ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... share
a ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... private
aa ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... bazaar, aardvark
ai ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... said
ai ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... aisle
ai ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... maid
ai ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... plaid
au ...'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... cause
au ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... gauge
au ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... aunt
au ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... chauffeur
ay ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... says
ay ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... pay
ay ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... quay
aye ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... aye
augh ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... daughter
aw ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... shawl
ea ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... heat
ea ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... ocean
ea ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... head
ea ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... heart
ea ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... great
eau ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... beauty
eau ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... beau
ea[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... learn
oa ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... oat

Bsilent ...thumb
b ... 'b' as in 'bit' ... [b] ...bone
C

c ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... casserole
c ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... cello
ce ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... ice
ce ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... ocean
cc ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... with 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... accent
ch ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... choir, schedule
ch ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... chance
ch ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... machine
chs ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... fuchsia
ci ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... ancient
ci ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... special
ck ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... back
cz ... 't' as in 'time' ... [d] with 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... czar (one of two possible pronunciations)
sch ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... schmuck
sc ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... science
sci ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... conscience
tch ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... watch

D

d ... 'd' as in 'dime' ... [d] ... dark
d ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... individual
dge ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... judge
dj ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... adjective
ed ... 't' as in 'time' ... [d] ... tripped

E

e ... silent ... there
ce ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... ice
ce ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... ocean
dge ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... judge
e ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... shed
e ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... be
e ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... anthem
e ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... pretty
e ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... sergeant
e ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... suede, cafe
ea ...'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... heart
ea ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... heat
ea ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... head
ea ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... ocean
ea ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... great
ea[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... learn
eau ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... beauty
eau ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... beau
ed ... 't' as in 'time' ... [t] ... tripped
ee ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... been
ee ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... weep
ee ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... puree
ei ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... receive
ei ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... veil
eig ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... foreign (can also be reduced 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ])
eig ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... reign
eigh ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... weigh
eigh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... height
eo ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... leopard
eo ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... people
eu ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... feud
eu ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... chauffeur
eu ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... sleuth
ew ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... few
ew ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... blew
ey ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... key
ey ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... they
ie ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... friend
ie ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... brief
ie ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... lie
oe ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... foe
oe ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... does
oe ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... shoe
ue ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... blue
ye ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... bye

Ff ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... fear
f ... 'v' as in 'van' ... [v] ... of
f ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... off
Gsilent ... sign
augh ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... daughter
dge ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... judge
eig ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... foreign (can also be reduced 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ])
eig ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... reign
eigh ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... weigh
eigh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... height
igh ...'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... sigh
g ... 'g' as in 'gap' ... [g] ... go
g ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... gem
ge ... 'dj' as in 'measure' ... [ʒ] ... beige
gg ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... exaggerate
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] ... ring
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] with 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... angst
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] with 'g' as in 'gap' ... [g] ... anger
ough ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... though
ough ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... thought
ough ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... through
ough ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... bough
ough ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] OR 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... cough
ough ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... enough
Hsilent ... honor, thyme, rhythm
augh ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... daughter
ch ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... choir
ch ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... chance
ch ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... chartreuse
chs ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... fuchsia
h ... 'h' as in 'hi' ... [h] ... happy
igh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... sigh
eigh ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... weigh
eigh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... height
ough ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... though
ough ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... thought
ough ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... through
ough ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... bough
ough ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] OR 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... cough
ough ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... enough
ph ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... phone
pph ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... sapphire
sch ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... schmuck
sh ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... shame
tch ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... watch
th ... 'th' as in 'thin' ... [θ] ... thanks
th ... 'th' as in 'this' ... [ð] ... those
Iai ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... said
ai ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... aisle
ai ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... maid
ai ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... plaid
ci ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... ancient
ci ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... special
ei ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... receive
ei ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... veil
eig ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... foreign (can also be reduced 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ])
eig ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... reign
eigh ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... weigh
eigh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... height
i ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... him
i ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... time
i ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... police
i ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... possible
i ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... timbre
i ... 'y' as in 'yes' ... [j] ... senior
ie ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... friend
ie ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... grieve
ie ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... lie
igh ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... sigh
i[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... bird
oi ... 'oy' as in 'toy' ... [ɔɪ] ... moist
oi ... 'w' as in 'will' ... [w] with 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... choir
ui ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... build
ui ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... juice
sci ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... conscience
si ... 'dj' as in 'measure' ... [ʒ] ... vision
ti ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... motion
ti ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... mention
Jdj ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... adjective
j ... 'j' as in 'jar' ... [ʤ] ... joy
j ... 'y' as in 'yes' ... [j] ... fjord
j ... 'h' as in 'hi' ... [h] ... junta
Ksilent ... know
ck ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... back
k ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... king
Lsilent ... palm
l ... 'l' as in 'lap' ... [l] ... love
ll ... 'l' as in 'lap' ... [l] ... million
Mm ... 'm' as in 'map' ... [m] ... mine
mm ... 'm' as in 'map' ... [m] ... summer
Nsilent ... autumn
n ... 'n' as in 'nap' ... [n] ... name
n ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] ... think
nn ... 'n' as in 'nap' ... [n] ... funny
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] ... ring
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] with 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... angst
ng ... 'ng' as in 'sing' ... [ŋ] with 'g' as in 'gap' ... [g] ... anger
O

eo ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... leopard
eo ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... people
o ... 'w' as in 'will' ... [w] with 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... one
o ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... women
o ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] ... body
o ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... do
o ... 'uh' as in 'pull' ... [ʊ] ... wolf
o ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... go
o ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... love
o ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... bottom
oa ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... oat
oe ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... foe
oe ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... does
oe ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... shoe
oi ... 'oy' as in 'toy' ... [ɔɪ] ... moist
oi ... 'w' as in 'will' ... [w] with 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... choir
oo ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... too
oo ... 'uh' as in 'pull' ... [ʊ] ... wood
oo ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... blood
oo ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... brooch
ou ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... you
ou ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... jealous
ou ... 'uh' as in 'pull' ... [ʊ] ... could
ou ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... trouble
ou ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... soul
ou ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... round
ou[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... journey
o[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... word
ough ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... though
ough ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... thought
ough ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... through
ough ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... bough
ough ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] OR 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... cough
ough ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... enough
ow ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... cow
ow ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... row
oy ... 'oy' as in 'toy' ... [ɔɪ] ... joy
wo ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... two

Psilent ... psychology, pneumonia
p ... 'p' as in 'pit' ... [p] ... pear
ph ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... phone
pph ... 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... sapphire
Qq ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] ... quiet
Rr ... 'r' as in 'run' ... [ɹ] ... rat
Ssilent ... island
chs ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... fuchsia
s ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... some
s ... 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... his
s ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ]... sugar
s ... 'dj' as in 'measure' ... [ʒ] ... measure
sc ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... science
sch ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... schmuck
sci ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... conscience
si ... 'dj' as in 'measure' ... [ʒ] ... vision
sh ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... shame
ss ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ]... issue
ss ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ...miss
ss ... 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... possession
Tsilent ... fasten
t ... 't' as in 'time' ... [t] ... tap
t ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... future, righteous
tch ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... watch
th ... 'th' as in 'thin' ... [θ] ... thanks
th ... 'th' as in 'this' ... [ð] ... those
ti ... 'sh' as in 'ship' ... [ʃ] ... motion
ti ... 'ch' as in 'char' ... [ʧ] ... mention
U

silent ... plague (it signals a hard G without being pronounced)
au ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... cause
au ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... gauge
au ... 'aa' as in 'bat' ... [æ] ... aunt
au ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... chauffeur
augh ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... daughter
eau ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... beauty
eau ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... beau
eu ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... feud
eu ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... chauffeur
eu ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... sleuth
ou ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... trouble
ou ... 'uh' as in 'pull' ... [ʊ] ... could
ou ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... you
ou ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... jealous
ou ... ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... soul
ou ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... round
ough ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [oʊ] ... though
ough ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... thought
ough ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... through
ough ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... bough
ough ... 'ah' as in 'father' ... [α] OR 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... cough
ough ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] with 'f' as in 'fan' ... [f] ... enough
ou[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... journey
u ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... autumn
u ... 'uh' as in 'butter' ... [ʌ] ... up
u ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... union
u ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... bury
u ... 'uh' as in 'pull' ... [ʊ] ... sugar
u ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... flute
u ... 'w' as in 'will' ... [w] ... quiet, suite
u ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... minute
ue ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... blue
ui ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... build
ui ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... juice
u[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... burn
uy ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... buy

Vv ... 'v' as in 'van' ... [v] ... voice
W

silent ... answer, write
aw ... 'aw' as in 'law' ... [ɔ] ... shawl
ew ... 'ew' as in 'few' ... [ju] ... few
ew ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... blew
ow ... 'ow' as in 'now' ... [aʊ] ... cow
ow ... 'oh' as in 'no' ... [aʊ] ... row
w ... 'w' as in 'will' ... [w] ... wise
wo ... 'oo' as in 'boo' ... [u] ... two

Xx ... 'k' as in 'cap' ... [k] with 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... ax, expert
x ... 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... xylophone
x ... 'g' as in 'gap' ... [g] with 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... exhibit
Yay ... 'eh' as in 'bed' ... [ε] ... says
ay ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... pay
ey ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... key
ey ... 'ay' as in 'say' ... [eɪ] ... they
oy ... 'oy' as in 'toy' ... [ɔɪ] ... joy
uy ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... buy y ... 'ih' as in 'sit' ... [ɪ] ... symbol
y ... 'uh' as in 'supply' ... [ə] ... syringe
y ... 'y' as in 'yes' ... [j] ... you
y ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... rhyme, my
y ... 'ee' as in 'she' ... [i] ... melody
ye ... 'ai' as in 'buy' ... [aɪ] ... bye
y[r] ... 'ur' as in 'her' ... [ɜ] ... myrtle
Zcz ... 't' as in 'time' ... [t] with 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... czar (one of two possible pronunciations)
z ... 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... lazy
z ... 'dj' as in 'measure' ... [ʒ] ... azure
z ... 't' as in 'time' ... [t] with 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] .. Nazi
z ... 's' as in 'sip' ... [s] ... ritz
zz ... 'z' as in 'zip' ... [z] ... buzz
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